Rootstocks Guide

Rootstock selector for fruittrees

Rootstocks slow the vegetative growth (leaves, branches) of the fruit selections and take care of a sooner and richer harvest . Also they offer a better resistance against certain  fungal deseases .

Dependent on the general  chosen race , the soil and stem height a rootstock is selected .

Step 1

Choice of the tree shape and stem height required.

BushPatioshapeLow standardWhipHalf standardStandard
Stemheight20 cm40 cm60-80 cmvariabel120-160 cm180-220 cm
Mature height, approx.2 m1 m3 m2,5 m5 m7 m
Harvest after approx.2 jr2 jr3 jr3 jr5 jr7 jr
UsageRetailPotplant RetailRetail and commercialDense plantings in hedges (Retail and commercial)Solitair and fruit orchardSolitair and fruit orchard
Usage live expect. , ca30 yrvariabel40yr30 yr50-75 yryr jr

Step 2

Choice of the suitable rootstock.

ApplePearCherriePlum
BushM26, M7 and MM106Quince MAGisela 3 of 5VVA-1
Low stemM26, M7 and MM106Quince MAColt, Weiroot 13 or 158, Gisela 3 or 5St. Julien A
WhipB9, M7, M9 or M26Kwee MC, Quince AWeiroot 158, Gisela 5St. Julien A
Half standardM7, M106, m111 and Bittenfelder seedlingKirchensaller seedling, Pear seedlingColt, Prunus avium , F12/1St. Julien, Myrobolaan
Standardmm111 and Bittenfelder seedlingKirchensaller seedling, Pear seedlingPrunus avium , F12/1St. Julien, Bromton, Myrobolaan

Some additional information and things to know regarding your rootstocks .

  • B9 is a Russian rootstock  alternative : more dry resistant/lower temperatures resistant.
  • M26 does not like wet soil. It is suitable for less intensive crops and so very suitable for private usage .  It requires less care and pruning, support and watering. The wind resistance makes it suitable for,single stem shape
  • M9 is most commonly used in commercial orchard
  • Quince MC is mainly used for commercial use because of weaker growth. This makes it suitable for espaliered trees . Quince MC is more frost sensitive.
  • Quince Adams is in terms of vigor amidst Kwee Kwee MA and MC
  • For plums usually but not always no seedlings rootstocks are used . This is due to large differences in vigor

Step 3

Tune to conditions.

The above table is a directive. Is a fast-growing breed used in a fertile soil, the growth (yet) should continue to be held back by a weaker rootstock. If one wants a friendly maintenance tree and later fruiting , no problem, it can be reached by using faster growing rootstocks.  The table below provides help in the alignment of the selected strain.

  • SLOW / WEAK GROWING ROOTSTOCKS
  • For shorter stems
  • For more rich soil types
  • For powerfull grafts/ races
  • For short life cycle
  • More maintenance
  • Crop allready after 2 yr
  • Easy to prune
  • Stake nessessarry
  • Shorter plant distance
  • Fast / STRONG / POWERFULL ROOTSTOKS
  • For taller stems
  • For more poor soil types
  • For weaker grafts / races
  • For longer life cycle
  • Low maintenance
  • Crop after 7 jaar
  • More difficult to prune
  • Stake only short while after planting
  • Wider plant distance

Since fruit like apples and pears have fairly shallow roots it should be considered to check soil at 0 to 50 cm depth

Stems in between rootstock and variety.

Sometimes between the rootstock and the variety, species or cultivar a stem in between is used.. With apples this is primarily done to create a beautiful, straight trunk for half-standard and tall trees. With pear a strain in between is sometimes necessary because of incompatibility of the chosen variety.

F. Kuiper BV Veendam supplies all types and sizes of rootstocks.
Please contact us for mor information .